Planting cauliflower for seedlings - terms and rules for work
In our climate, some garden beds begin with growing on a windowsill. Only in this way is it possible to get a full harvest of heat-loving vegetables. Therefore, it is worthwhile to familiarize yourself in more detail with the rules, conditions, as well as the timing when planting cauliflower for seedlings.
Features of culture
All cauliflower varieties have a one-year development cycle. In the year of planting, a head is formed, consisting of many short shoots tightly pressed to each other, ending in rudiments of inflorescences. Later, long stems are released from the parting head, at the end of which brushes with yellow flowers are formed. It is these flowers that subsequently form pods with seeds. In our temperate continental climate, the average maturation of the head from the moment of germination to technical ripeness is from three to four months, and it will take more than six months for the seeds to ripen. Based on this, it becomes clear the need and rationality of the seedling method of growing, because cauliflower, unlike traditional white cabbage varieties, does not tolerate a drop in temperatures. Even lowering to 10 ° C will negatively affect yields, especially during the head formation period. But at the same time, hot weather is undesirable, if the temperature rises above 26 ° C, then the growth and development of the heads slows down and their quality suffers.
All cauliflower varieties have a one-year development cycle.
Thus, the results of the work of gardeners are more dependent on the temperature regime. All other conditions for the successful cultivation of cauliflower for seedlings can be created independently - to optimize the moisture level, improve the quality and change the type of soil, provide fertilizers and protect the crop from diseases and pests.
Seedling cultivation work schedule
Seeds of cauliflower sprout rather quickly, and the period of plant formation is short, in comparison with other thermophilic crops. Therefore, you should not rush to sowing seedlings, because overgrown, elongated bushes are less promising in their development, and their yield is lower.
To more accurately determine the optimal planting time, it is worth familiarizing yourself with the varietal characteristics of the purchased seeds and taking into account the weather conditions in your region.
Video about caring for cauliflower
Dates of sowing seeds, depending on the varieties:
|Variety name and hybrids||Ripening period||Dates of sowing seeds for seedlings||Seedling age||Dates of disembarkation in open ground|
|Early ripening varieties: Opal, Early Gribovskaya 1355, Snezhinka, Snow Ball 123, etc.||80-110 days.||mid to late March||25-45 days||from early April to early May|
|Early varieties and hybrids: Nautius F1, Movir 74, Express MS, etc.||115-125 days.||from early March to early April||35-50 days||from mid-April to mid-May|
|Mid-season: Patriotic, White Beauty, Flora Blanca, Yako and others||126-135 days||from the first ten days of April to the first ten days of May||35-40 days||from the 20th of May to mid-June|
|Late varieties and hybrids: Cortes F1, Consista, Amerigo F1, Adler winter, Sochi and others||145-170 days||from late May to mid-June||30-35 days||from late June to mid-July|
Important: even sowing seeds of early varieties in several stages, it has been noticed that the best yield is obtained from seedlings planted at the age of 20-25 days.
But it is also impossible to be late with the planting of late varieties (unless you live in a southern resort climate), otherwise the successfully formed heads can be damaged by the first autumn frosts.
So, taking into account the above recommendations, you can draw up an approximate schedule of work.
March - we start sowing
While there is no work in the garden for weather reasons, you can start preparing the container and soil for seedlings. If you prefer to prepare the soil yourself, then take:
- 2 parts of humus;
- 2 pieces of garden land;
- 1 part of coarse sand (if the soil from your site is clayey);
- 1 part dry non-acidic peat;
- spatula for seedlings;
- sowing container;
All soil components are thoroughly mixed and disinfected. To do this, you need to thoroughly warm up the soil in the oven or microwave, but although this is a fairly effective and quick disinfection process, it stops many because of the release of a characteristic odor. Therefore, it is easy to spill the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate or use fungicide preparations. Disinfection is necessary in order to reduce the likelihood of the spread of fungal infections, which often affect seedlings and often lead to their death.
The finished containers filled with soil are covered with plastic wrap and left until sowing.
Seedlings appear relatively quickly and here it is important not to miss the moment in order to reduce the temperature to 10-12 ° C in time
The early varieties are sown first after March 8-10, but you can rely on these dates if your climatic conditions allow, because by the time of planting the seedlings should be about 30 days old. Therefore, if there is confidence that the snow will melt by mid-April and the earth will warm up, start sowing, if not, then it is better to postpone it for a week.
Experienced gardeners advise not to sow all the seeds from the bag at once, it is better to do it in two or three stages with a break of 3-4 days. Growing up together, the seedlings of the same variety will slightly differ in terms of ripening, which makes it possible to save on the purchase of different seeds, but at the same time extend the ripening period of the crop.
Seedlings appear relatively quickly and it is important not to miss the moment in order to reduce the temperature to 10-12 ° C in time and put the boxes on the windowsill for maximum illumination. These measures will help prevent the stretching of seedlings, but for the further formation of bushes, after 5 days, the temperature regime is set at optimal rates of 13-15 ° C.
A couple of weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are ready for picking. The day before, transfer the seedlings to a warmth of about 21-23 ° C, and after transplanting, return them to their original coolness. This will help young bushes to survive the pick easier and quickly recover in a new place.
This month is already beginning to pamper us with the first sunny days, and here you can already start preparing a greenhouse or greenhouses. Growing seedlings on windowsills can be especially important for northern regions or for getting the earliest possible production. In most cases, sowing seeds in greenhouses shows much better results. Even if you do not have a stationary greenhouse, a hastily assembled greenhouse under a dense film (150 microns) or white non-woven agrofibre in two folds is quite suitable for cabbage seedlings.
In a greenhouse or greenhouse, the soil warms up much faster, especially if the place is set aside on the south side of the site and is maximally illuminated by the sun. Therefore, by April 12-14, you can start mass crops. The convenience of this method also lies in the fact that in parallel with cauliflower, you can also sow seeds of other varieties - white cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi or Beijing, because the conditions for growing seedlings are practically the same.
Seedlings appear on the 5-8th day and from this moment it is necessary to control the temperature in the greenhouse
So, for the first April sowing, cauliflower of early and medium ripening times is suitable. Sowing is best done in rows, according to varieties, so that later it will be more convenient to plant growing seedlings. Seedlings appear on the 5-8th day and from this moment it is necessary to control the temperature in the greenhouse. The success of the crop in the form of a large and dense head begins precisely at the age of the seedlings, and temperatures above 14 ° C contribute to its premature, but, as a rule, unpromising formation. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the beds of the closed ground during the daytime in order to reduce the temperature. At night, it is imperative to close the crops so that possible frosts do not harm.
May cabbage care
The first days of May for most gardeners in the middle lane is the official beginning of garden work, because the sun is already hot and the earth is warming up. It's time to plant the grown seedlings of early varieties of cauliflower. The planting pattern can be in rows or staggered, the main thing is to observe the distance between plants in 60-70cm, and also not to forget about the generous watering of the holes and the desired mulching of the beds.
Video about growing cauliflower
Also in May, late-ripening cauliflower varieties are sown, and now this can be done in the open field.
What to do with cabbage seedlings in June?
In parallel with the work on the care of the beds, the transplanting of the next stages of sowing continues. In order not to get confused in terms and varieties, the time of planting in a permanent place can be determined by the plant itself - the age in the 4-6 leaf phase will be optimal in terms of survival and the growing season.
In parallel with the care of the beds, the planting of seedlings of the next stages of sowing continues
When planting at the end of the month, the harvest should be expected no earlier than the end of September, therefore, later planting dates are irrational for the Russian climate of the middle zone.
Proper care and cultivation of cauliflower outdoors
Cabbage is a moisture-loving and quite demanding vegetable crop. Just planting seedlings is not enough. Sometimes preparation and care for cultivation begins in the fall, when it is necessary to prepare a site for planting cabbage in the spring.
This leads to the fact that many do not like to do this. Especially when it comes to how to grow cauliflower outdoors. A tasty, healthy, beautiful vegetable crop which can be harvested from the last days of April to the beginning of May.
When to plant cabbage for seedlings?
When to sow cabbage for seedlings?
When growing cabbage seedlings answer to the question: when to sow cabbage for seedlings , is determined based on the fact that from sowing cabbage seeds 8 - 12 days pass before the emergence of seedlings, and from germination to the formation of full-fledged seedlings another 45 - 50 days.
therefore plant cabbage for seedlings in boxes it is necessary 55 - 60 days before its landing in the ground. Based on this race in time, it is easy to calculate the required sowing time. cabbage seeds .
When to plant cabbage outdoors
To find out the exact time of planting in a permanent place, you should take into account the variety.
- Early culture is kept in seedling state 55-65 days after sowing the seeds, but they are not immediately sent to the garden until the spring frosts are completely gone. This usually occurs at the end of April in regions with a warm climate and at the beginning of May in other areas.
- Middle and late crops can be planted in the ground through 45 days after the cabbage was planted for seedlings. Optimal terms - from May 25 and until June 10.
But you should pay attention not only to the calendar, but also to the condition of the seedlings themselves. If some conditions of development are violated, they can slow down in growth.
Early varieties should reach a height of 20 cm and have at least 5 well-developed leaves. In medium and late varieties, 4 strong leaves are enough. If the seedlings do not meet these parameters, it is better to grow them.
Before removing the seedlings from the container, the soil is watered abundantly - this will facilitate the procedure. The bushes are individually planted vertically in prepared holes, dropping the cotyledon leaves. The soil around the seedling is squeezed and the hole is watered 2 liters of water.
How does cabbage reproduce?
Seeds taken from the first arrow that comes across may not retain varietal properties. Moreover, they may not even give heads of cabbage. To get quality seeds, you need to grow them in a certain way.
How do I get seeds?
Seeds are easier to buy ready-made - there are enough of them in any seed store. For large-scale cultivation, it makes sense to get seeds on your own.
Features of obtaining seeds:
- Seeds are harvested in the second year of cabbage life.
- The best heads of cabbage are chosen for the role of mother plants.
- Before frost, the selected plants are taken out of the ground along with roots and soil.
- Before laying the mother liquors for storage, they are powdered with wood ash, and the roots are dipped in a clay mash. The cover leaves are cut off, leaving only 2-3 pieces. The mother liquors are stored at temperatures from +1 to + 2 ° C.
- With the onset of March-April, the stump is cut, giving it the shape of a cone, and preserving the upper bud. The length of the petioles on the stump should be within 2-3 cm.
- Ready stalks are placed in moistened peat or humus.
- In April-May, the cabbage stumps are planted in the ground, placing them at an angle, and deepening to the very base of the heads of cabbage. Between the mother plants of different varieties, a distance of 500-600 m is maintained so that the plants do not get dusty.
- Caring for mother liquors is usual - watering, loosening, weeding, two fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers.
- When the pods are ripe and dry, the seeds can be harvested.
How to grow cabbage from a stump?
From the cobs, you can get not only seed, but also a new head of cabbage. True, this requires certain conditions:
- Two crops from one plant can be obtained only in regions with a warm climate.
- Having removed the heads of early cabbage in early July, the cabbage stumps are not removed from the ground.
- Soon, small heads of cabbage will begin to form between the leaves.
- Small heads of cabbage are thinned out - only two pieces are left on one stump.
- The leaves in the lower part - from the previous head of cabbage, are not torn off so that the plants retain moisture better.
- Cabbage, which gives a second crop, is usually looked after - watered, loosened, fed. I harvest my second crop around mid-September. True, the heads of cabbage will be smaller than the first ones - about 0.5-0.7 kg.
How is the planting of seedlings carried out
Before planting seeds or seedlings of cauliflower or white cabbage, the closed structure should be well ventilated. To do this, the frames must be opened all day. Or remove the film from the greenhouse. Seedlings must be well moistened before sowing.
It is necessary to plant cabbage when the seedling is covered with several true leaves, there is a well-developed root system, the color of the seedlings is bright green. If the color is unsaturated, this is a signal of poor stem development. The material grown correctly will bring a good harvest in the future.
When cabbage is planted in a greenhouse, do not shake off the earthy clod from the seedlings. This procedure can damage the delicate and thin roots. Early varieties of cauliflower or white cabbage must be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse substrate no earlier than the third decade of April.
Before planting cabbage seedlings, the soil must be well fertilized. It is better to use organic types of dressings for these purposes:
It is not recommended to grow cabbage in the same place for several years in a row. Digging up the soil should be carried out in the autumn period, after which a certain amount of top dressing is poured into the dug beds. In the spring, the soil mixture is re-processed, dug up, fertilized and harrowed.
In a greenhouse or greenhouse, ready-made sprouts are planted, observing an interval between them of at least half a meter. Watering is not necessary after planting is complete.
The soil should be loosened, fed with dissolved manure. The total amount of loosening of the substrate should be carried out at least four times.
Technology for growing cauliflower seedlings at home
Cultivation of cauliflower seedlings at home is carried out with the picking of seedlings in pots, since its root system is relatively poorly developed. Cauliflower is worse than white cabbage, tolerates transplanting in open ground.
The technology of growing cauliflower seedlings at home is basically the same as the agricultural technology of early white cabbage. A distinctive feature is the younger age of the seedlings - 40-45 days. 40-day-old cauliflower seedlings are the most malleable and viable. After disembarkation, it gets sick less and builds up the assimilation surface faster. Has a greater head mass than a 50-day one. When using 40-day seedlings, the early harvest is 40% higher and the total crop is 20% higher than the 50-day one.
Cauliflower already in the seedling period forms the rudiments of inflorescences, so it is more demanding on growing conditions. The formation of its heads is greatly influenced by temperature. Air temperature above 20 ° C leads to premature formation of small heads, below 10 ° C - delays it, makes the heads denser. To grow cauliflower seedlings as strong as possible, the optimum temperature should be 2 ° C higher than for early white cabbage.
Water the seedlings regularly and in moderation, avoiding overdrying the pots, as this leads to the formation of small heads. Prepare cauliflower seedlings for planting in the same way as early white cabbage.
This video details the cultivation of cauliflower seedlings: