Treatment of the garden in the fall from pests and diseases: how, when and with what
After harvesting from fruit trees and berry bushes, it is time to think about the autumn processing of the garden from pests and diseases. Apple trees and pears, plums and cherries, raspberries and currants, as well as other crops have given a lot of strength to fruiting, and they must be protected from sources of infection and larvae of harmful insects in order to get a good harvest next year.
Why cultivate a garden in the fall
Autumn is the time to prepare for the new season. All activities carried out during this time of the year are aimed at helping the garden to winter successfully so that trees and bushes are healthy by the spring. Despite spring and summer treatments and measures to improve the garden, even the most caring gardeners can be affected by various kinds of infections, and larvae and eggs of pests remain on the branches, under the bark, in leaf litter and in the soil of the trunk circle. The reasons for this may be bad weather in summer, poor location of the garden (in the wrong place and on the wrong soil).
In the near-trunk circle, larvae of insect pests hibernate
The purpose of the autumn processing of the garden is the destruction of pests and pathogens. It is achieved by treating the garden with various preparations. There are two approaches to processing time.
When to spray in the fall - early or late?
The first approach is to spray over the leaves. This is an eradicating treatment that is performed when the foliage begins to turn yellow and fall off. Since the solutions are used very concentrated, they not only destroy larvae, eggs and microorganisms, but also burn the leaves, causing artificial leaf fall ahead of time. This approach makes it possible to avoid getting a large number of spores of fungi, larvae of pests and infectious agents into the ground with fallen leaves - everything simply decomposes. It is not necessary to carry out eradicating treatment on young trees and bushes planted this spring - the first years do not need extra stress.
Eradicating treatment of the garden is carried out while the leaves have not yet fallen
The question may arise: what about preparing plants for winter? After all, the leaves destroyed ahead of time will not have time to accumulate enough nutrients and the tree or bush will not have enough food for a successful wintering. However, in fact, artificial leaf fall gives the tree a signal that winter is coming and it is urgent to mobilize: to ripen the bark, that is, to make it denser, resistant to frost and winter winds. And also the plant has time to accumulate enough nutrients in a shorter time, and stress processing is good for it.
Video: eradicating tree treatment in the fall
After eradicating treatment, the leaves begin to blacken and die off - this is a normal process that should not be feared. Although many expert gardeners believe that any treatment should be carried out only after the end of the leaf fall.
The second approach is to spray after the leaves fall. In this case, the larvae of pests and fungal spores have time to get into the ground, respectively, you will have to cultivate the trunk circle, dig up the ground, take away the leaves or burn them (except for those treated with urea). However, at the same time, the tree does not experience stress, naturally sheds its leaves and manages to accumulate the required amount of nutrition by winter, since the sap flow continues longer.
If you process trees after leaf fall, there will be less stress on them.
Video: how to process trees after leaves fall
Terms of autumn processing of trees and shrubs
With any approach, you must first harvest the crop so as not to damage the fruits - after processing they will not be possible to eat. Depending on the region, the duration of the procedure will be different. If the weather is warm, they may move. In any case, it is necessary to have time to carry out processing before frost. The most suitable temperature for spraying in autumn is + 5 ° C.
Table: when to spray a garden from diseases and pests in different regions of Russia
|Regions||Eradication treatment||Spraying after leaf fall|
|Center of the European part of Russia||End of September or beginning of October||Mid or late October|
|Southern regions of central Russia, Southern Siberia, southern Urals||The beginning of November||Mid or late November|
|Caucasus, Crimea||Mid November||Early December|
|North of European Russia and northern regions of Siberia, northern Urals||Second half of September||Mid october|
How to spray a garden in the fall: basic rules and recommendations
Let's start with the fact that not all plants require processing in the fall. All stone and pome fruits (apple trees, pears, cherries, plums, cherry plums, peaches) must be sprayed, since these crops are often affected by various infections, and pests love them. Currants, gooseberries, grapes, honeysuckle by the end of the season look unpresentable: no matter how you spray them during the summer, the leaves are still affected by diseases.
The beautiful viburnum is more resistant to infections. As for raspberries and garden strawberries, only traditional varieties are processed. Repairers will still produce crops, and spraying in this case will hurt. In addition, remontant raspberries are often pruned at the root before winter (excluding bushes that are grown in a two-year cycle), and such pruning simply leaves neither pests nor pathogens a place for wintering. Repaired strawberries and strawberries are best processed in the spring.
Pruning remontant raspberries at the root does not leave any pests or pathogens a place for wintering
The peculiarity of the autumn garden processing is the use of more concentrated solutions, since there is no danger of harming tender young leaves and shoots, like in spring.
The garden must be sprayed once. They do this in calm weather, in the morning, so that by evening all the trees and bushes are already dry. Wear protective clothing and footwear, goggles and a respirator on the face.
Bushes and trees are processed both outside and inside, trying to hit all branches and trunk. Be sure to treat the trunk circle with a solution, especially if the leaves have already fallen off. Before the procedure, the earth must be dug up, and the litter must be removed from the site or burned.
The best tools for treating the garden before wintering
For spraying trees and shrubs, different means are used. Some of them are very poisonous to humans, they must be used in compliance with protective measures. Doses should be adjusted: if the garden is not sick, use the minimum, preventive, and if it is very sick, increase it by one and a half to two times.
Iron and copper sulfate
Iron vitriol - ferrous sulfate - is used against lichens and mosses inhabiting tree trunks, leaf chlorosis, scab, clasterosporium disease, gray rot, black wood cancer. These are crystals or powder of greenish-blue color.
For spraying, prepare a solution of 250-500 g of powder and 10 liters of water. They take warm water and first mix the drug with a small amount of liquid, and then the resulting solution is filtered and brought to the required volume. If you simply mix the powder with cold water, it will not dissolve well and clog the sprayer.
Iron sulfate is poorly soluble in water
Copper sulfate - copper sulfate - is used against mold, rot and fungal diseases (various spots, scab, moniliosis and others). It is a bright blue powder or crystals.
To prepare 10 liters of solution, take 200-300 g of powder and dilute in the same way as ferrous sulfate. When using both drugs, glass or plastic containers are needed, as they eat away at the enamel.
Copper sulfate is a powder or blue crystals
Both iron and copper sulfate are recommended only for spraying after leaf fall, otherwise you can destroy the buds that have not gone into hibernation. Both drugs act not only as fungicides, but also as insecticides.
Gardeners often argue about the treatment of the trunk circle with copper and iron sulfate: they say, they are poisonous, they will destroy the soil. Of course, these substances are quite dangerous for humans and animals (copper sulfate - 2nd class, iron sulfate - 3rd class), and if you are afraid of harm from them, you can replace them with more environmentally friendly means, which are discussed below.
Urea is a colorless and odorless crystal. It contains over 46% nitrogen. Unlike vitriol, it dissolves well in water. It can be used for leaf-eradicating treatments. For spraying, a highly concentrated solution of urea is prepared - 300-800 g per 10 liters of water (with leaves - less concentration, without leaves - more).
Urea is good because the fallen leaves, poured with its solution, can not be carried away from the site, but left to rot for the winter. In the spring, they will make an excellent fertilizer, clean from infections and even from hibernating eggs and larvae of pests, against which the drug also helps.
Urea (carbamide) is used not only as nitrogen fertilizer, but also for eradicating the treatment of the garden from pests and diseases
Tank mix "urea + ferrous sulfate"
Prepare a mixture of 500 g of ferrous sulfate, 3 tablespoons of citric acid and 500-600 g of carbamide per 10 liters of water. Citric acid and urea will create a stronger hypertonic concentration of the solution (with a high content of mineral salts) on the surface of the leaves, which will help to destroy the most difficult to eradicate forms: for example, spores hidden in cracks in the bark. Add 4 tablespoons of liquid soap or dishwashing detergent to this mixture to improve adhesion.
Due to the combination of different components in the "urea + ferrous sulfate" tank mixture, a stronger hypertonic concentration of the solution is created and it penetrates into the cracks in the bark
The combination of components also will not allow to support crops that are sheltered for the winter (for example, grapes, young columnar apple trees) with alternating frosts and thaws.
This well-known drug is used to prevent scab, powdery mildew, gray mold, purple spot, coccomycosis, bacterial cancer and other diseases. The mixture consists of copper sulfate and lime. When preparing it, it is important to strictly follow the instructions and use it immediately, otherwise the desired effect will not be achieved.
Bordeaux mixture acts on microorganisms while they are still relatively active. Therefore, treatment with a 3% mixture is more effective in early spring in the northern regions, when both plants and their pests wake up (however, you must have time to spray before the buds swell). And in the southern regions of Russia, it is recommended to use 3% Bordeaux liquid in the fall for grapes, peaches after the leaves have fallen off.
Bordeaux mixture consists of copper sulfate and lime
Video: how to prepare Bordeaux mixture correctly
Modern means for processing the garden in the fall
Nowadays, gardeners do not always trust time-tested means and use more modern drugs. Unfortunately, they are not always suitable for late autumn processing, if you strictly follow the instructions. However, some garden owners still use them, considering them more environmentally friendly and efficient.
Insecticides and acaricides
Preparations against pests during the autumn processing of the garden should be used selectively: there are no insects on the leaves, they are frozen, their larvae buried in the ground for wintering, and not all means work on the eggs laid under the bark or under the scales of the buds. Therefore, you should carefully read the instructions. Some suitable drugs:
- insecticide Aktara acts in the soil when spraying the trunk circle and can be used to treat currants after harvest;
- insecticide Prophylactin is used against hibernating pests;
- it is recommended to spray apples, plums, pears, cherries, plums, cherries, raspberries with an acaricide (anti-tick agent) called "30 Plus" during the rest period. It protects trees and shrubs from the wintering stages of pests.
The preparation "30 Plus" is suitable for early spring and late autumn gardening
There are many modern drugs of biological origin. They cope well with infections and harmful insects, do not harm plants and the environment, and increase the immunity of garden crops. However, they are not suitable for late autumn processing, since the beneficial bacteria and fungi included in their composition, although they displace pests, work only at a relatively high temperature - more than + 12 ° C. Therefore, the instructions for them indicate the time of action - the period from the beginning of the growing season to harvest. Popular biological products for the garden:
- Bitoxibacillin - against leaf-eating pests, sprayed when caterpillars appear several times per season, while they continue to hatch;
- Lepidocide - against apple and fruit moth, apple moth, leafworm; sprayed several times during the growing season;
Lepidocide is a bioinsecticide to protect various crops
- Fitosporin-M universal - from root rot, scab, powdery mildew, Alternaria; processed during the growing season three times.
Modern drugs against fungal infections (Quadris, Ridomil Gold, Topaz, Skor, Abiga Peak, Oksikhom and others) are most often used according to the instructions during the growing season. After leaf fall, they no longer work, so they can only be applied on the leaves.
There is a preparation that can be used to treat the soil around trees and shrubs in autumn, and it is not poisonous, unlike iron and copper sulfate. It is called "Trichoplant" and consists of live microorganisms of the genus Trichoderma, which suppress the development of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. For spraying near-trunk circles, a working solution is made from 100-150 ml of the product and 10 liters of water.
Trichoplant is completely safe for people, animals and plants
Treating the garden in the fall is an important procedure that helps rid trees and shrubs of pests. You can carry out the procedure before the leaves fall and after leaf fall, the main thing is to use funds that act on pests and harmful microorganisms in the right phase of development. Among modern insecticides there are preparations against larvae and eggs laid by insects, which can be applied in late autumn. Of the fungicides for spraying after leaf fall, only traditional copper, iron sulfate and urea are used. On the soil, you can use the biological product Trichoplant.
Treatment of plums in the spring from pests and diseases
Treatment of plums in the spring from pests and diseases is necessary for prevention. Gardeners use different methods and methods of protecting trees, use folk remedies, spray them with chemicals. If the plum was not treated in autumn, it is necessary to use effective agrochemical solutions. However, they can be dispensed with in cases where there is no threat of infection by pathogenic fungi or damage by harmful insects for the garden. Less effective, but ecologically safe folk methods will help here.
Autumn processing of trees from pests and diseases. When and why to carry out the eradication of the garden in the fall
It is believed that the autumn eradicating treatment of the garden from diseases and pests should be carried out after the leaves fall, when the plants will completely go into a state of dormancy: its buds will “close” and become inaccessible to powerful and strong solutions with which you will spray them.
However, it is believed that the purpose of eradication autumn treatment, on the contrary, is to destroy the foliage before it turns yellow and falls off completely.
At the same time, you should not be afraid that the kidneys will burn out from such a solution, because at this time they are already ready for anything.
The fact is that, just the same application of powerful and strong doses of solutions to the foliage should lead to the destruction of pests and diseases even on the plant, that is, before the leaves fall to the ground and the pathogens hide in the soil (they go into the ground to an inaccessible depth, where they overwinter and begin their harmful activity in the spring).
By the way! Once the treated leaves are on the ground, they can be successfully composted for iron enrichment or left on the ground (as mulch). But this is in case the plants hurt slightly. If there were a lot of diseases, then it is better to burn the leaves, and use the ash as a top dressing with iron.
However, if you use copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid for processing, then you should no longer put it in compost.
In addition, such a treatment of the garden (before leaf fall, in order to destroy the foliage) will provide a much better wintering of plants.
Premature damage to leaves (their introduction into a stressful situation) signals the plant that winter is near, which means that it is time to actively prepare for the onset of frost.
By the way, such treatment speeds up the ripening of grape vines, currant branches, shoots of roses and other plants.
Thus, it is necessary to process the garden even on a leaf 2-3 weeks before the start of natural leaf fall, but strictly after the end of fruiting and harvesting.
A warning! Do not be alarmed if after 2-3 days all the leaves turn black and look burnt. This is exactly what the effect should be - the leaves should "burn".
Black color is not only the color of dying leaves, but also the fact that the bark of the branches is inlaid with iron salts, which will protect it for some time from the penetration of various pathogens.
In other words, the approximate timing of eradicating spraying of the garden in the fall is the second half of September-October. In the Urals and Siberia - first of all, a little later - in the Central zone (Moscow region), and in the South - at the very end of autumn.
Note! In any case, you need to have time to spray before frost, because most products work only at positive temperatures (usually +5 degrees).
Treatment of trees with copper sulfate
Before spraying, you must first clean the trunk of lichens with a brush. When processing trees, you can use a hand pump, they are sold in specialty shops for the garden and vegetable garden. But it is advisable to have an automated sprayer. It is much more convenient and easier to work with. For those gardeners who already have mature trees, you need to have a garden hose that can be lengthened in various ways. Most likely, you will have to tie it to a stick so that you can reach even the uppermost branches or use special telescopic rods.
It is worth worrying about your own safety. Bathrobe, gloves, hat and glasses. These items will protect you from getting the solution on bare areas of your body. And the respirator will not allow the vapors of the solution to enter the upper respiratory tract.
Before starting the treatment, the solution must be stirred. This is done as follows: 100 g of copper sulfate is diluted in a bucket of water. Vitriol dissolves worse in cold water. Therefore, you can dilute it at home in hot water, for example, in a three-liter jar, and then pour the contents into a bucket.
The solution must be poured into the sprayer through a funnel and several layers of gauze. It is imperative to filter the content. This is to prevent the spray nozzle and hose from clogging up with undissolved particles. Now you should pump air into the balloon, hang it on your shoulder and forward.
This article describes the process of treating trees with copper sulfate. But you can use any means that you like best or have already been purchased. Each package contains detailed instructions on how to use it.
Traditional methods of processing the site
Summer residents sometimes do not trust industrial manufacturers and prepare funds on their own. Famous folk remedies: composition of pine needles, laundry soap and ash, onion and garlic, ash. Also, spring treatment of the garden from pests and diseases with boiling water without additives is practiced.
Insect repellent needle solution
In late spring, during the spread of flying insects, use the properties of needles to scare away parasites from garden crops. Method for preparing coniferous solution:
- Purchase coniferous concentrate from your local drugstore or garden store.
- Pour 10 liters of water into a container.
- Pour 4 tbsp into the water. l. concentrate and stir.
The remedy helps against aphids, carrot flies, suckers, moths and other insects. It can be combined with wormwood infusion to broaden the spectrum of action and enhance the protective effect.
Soap and ash at any time
The soap solution fights spider mites, honeydew larvae and aphids. Soap preparation method:
- Pour water into a 10 L enamel bucket. Add 100 g of baking soda and put on fire.
- Boil until the water is soft.
- Grate a piece of laundry soap weighing 300 g on a coarse grater.
- Dump the soap shavings into boiling water and turn off the heat.
- When the solution has cooled, rinse the stems and leaves of the affected plants in it.
Add 1.5 kg of ash sifted through a sieve to the solution and let it brew - then the composition will help get rid of powdery mildew or cruciferous flea, and also create a protective film on the surface of the plants.
Onions and garlic in the fight for the harvest
Simple natural remedies that can destroy pests in a summer cottage. Prepare an infusion of onion peel or garlic to get rid of insects.
Method for preparing onion infusion:
- Fill a jar of dry onion husks with warm water in a volume of 2 liters.
- Cover with a lid and let the mixture sit for two days.
- Dilute the concentrate in the proportion: 2 parts water to 1 part infusion.
- Add 20 g of liquid soap and place the product.
Preparation of a preparation from garlic:
- Peel and crush 5 garlic cloves.
- Pour 15 liters of warm water and leave for 5 days.
- Dilute the concentrate with water and use for spraying.
Pest control products
In early autumn, trapping belts are removed from the trees and burned, along with the caterpillars of the apple moth, weevils and other garden pests that have climbed there. With the onset of cold weather, insects for hibernation burrow into the soil of the trunk circles and under the bark of plants, so the first step is to clean the stems of old bark, moss and lichens, cover the wounds with garden pitch and whitewash the trees with a special solution with the addition of copper sulfate.
Shortly before the onset of frost, the stems of fruit trees must be protected from rodents. To do this, the trunk is tied with spruce branches, a metal mesh, cut with a plastic bottle or roofing felt.
When to root out your garden
There are two completely opposite opinions on this topic. The first says that it is necessary to process fruit trees, observing the principle of "do no harm", that is, after the foliage has completely fallen off and the buds are closed. The second, on the contrary, insists on spraying crops even before all the leaves fall off (for them, the speed of falling is no longer important, and the pests will die on the tree and do not have time to hide in the soil), and for the buds at this time, the treatment is no longer scary.
Summarizing both opinions, we can conclude that if your fruit crops have suffered greatly from the effects of diseases and pests this season, then it makes sense to process them before the end of the leaf fall (but, of course, after the harvest). Some experts argue that this encourages plants to better prepare for winter. If the trees and shrubs were not particularly susceptible to infections, then it is more advisable to wait until the end of the leaf fall and only then process the garden.
If we are talking about the timing of the eradication treatment, then, depending on the above, it is October-November. Of course, it still depends on the weather this season and the climatic conditions of the particular region.
It is recommended to tie trees and shrubs in regions with cold winters. Especially thermophilic fruit trees and shrubs need this. Various materials can be used as insulation.
Very often used for this purpose. spruce or pine branches, sunflowers, raspberries, reeds... You can use roofing material, but in this case, you initially need to wrap the plant with rags, and only then with roofing material. It is impossible for the roofing material to touch the branches of a bush or a tree trunk.
The plant hides itself very simply. To do this, you need to overlay it with a covering material and wrap it with rope. The ideal option would be to cover the tree with a metal mesh and firmly fix the structure at the bottom with the ground. With such a structure, the plant is not afraid of either cold or strong winds.
If the presence of rodents was noticed on the site, traps for them can be laid around the structure. In early spring, they will need to be removed from the site.